[203] Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936;[200] the coldest recorded wind chill was −37 °F (−38 °C) on the same day as the all-time record low. Queens is the site of Citi Field, the baseball stadium of the New York Mets, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. [567], New York City's commuter rail network is the largest in North America. New York has been described as the "Capital of Baseball". View of The Pond and Midtown Manhattan from the Gapstow Bridge in Central Park, one of the world's most visited tourist attractions, in 2019. [448], Organized crime has long been associated with New York City, beginning with the Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards in the Five Points in the 1820s. Manhattan was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013. Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2) of office space in 2018,[363] making it the largest office market in the United States,[364] while Midtown Manhattan, with 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2) in 2018,[363] is the largest central business district in the world.[365]. 1790–1890: U.S. Census;[241][244] Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side of Manhattan,[481] in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill. Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area.[556][557]. [161] Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, and a number of important universities. [179], Manhattan's skyline, with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present.[591]. The New York City Subway is also the busiest metropolitan rail transit system in the Western Hemisphere, with 1.76 billion passenger rides in 2015,[562] while Grand Central Terminal, also referred to as "Grand Central Station", is the world's largest railway station by number of train platforms. At least four of the top five ZIP Codes in the nation for political contributions were in Manhattan for the 2004, 2006, and 2008 elections. [532] Citibank sponsored the introduction of 10,000 public bicycles for the city's bike-share project in the summer of 2013. Manhattan hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division while Brooklyn hosts the Second Department. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and LaGuardia Airport; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016, and the city's airspace is the busiest in the nation. Despite New York's heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. [301][302] Qantas Airways of Australia and Air New Zealand have been exploring the possibilities of long-haul flights from New York to Sydney and Auckland, respectively, which would both rank among the longest non-stop flights in the world. [446] Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers[185] and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects and AIA New York State for its design. [514], The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and the New York Jets, although both teams play their home games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey,[515] which hosted Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014.[516]. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations,[14] New York is an important center for international diplomacy. [77] The Dutch would soon return the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674. Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City is composed of five boroughs, each of which is a county of the State of New York. [297][298][299][300] In 2011, there were an estimated 20,000 Australian residents of New York City, nearly quadruple the 5,537 in 2005. Welcome to Little Australia in New York City", "Why Are There So Many Australians in New York? Italian immigrants brought New York-style pizza and Italian cuisine into the city, while Jewish immigrants and Irish immigrants brought pastrami[489] and corned beef,[490] respectively. The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 24 institutions across all five boroughs: senior colleges, community colleges, and other graduate/professional schools. Miss America: A History. The filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly $9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015. New York is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world as of 2016. , the New York metropolitan area is estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $2.0 trillion. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York,[18] making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. Major tourist destinations in Manhattan include Times Square; Broadway theater productions; the Empire State Building; the Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; the United Nations Headquarters; the World Trade Center (including the National September 11 Museum and One World Trade Center); museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; green spaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; the Stonewall Inn; Rockefeller Center; ethnic enclaves including the Manhattan Chinatown, Koreatown, Curry Hill, Harlem, Spanish Harlem, Little Italy, and Little Australia; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the Brooklyn Bridge (shared with Brooklyn); the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree; the St. Patrick's Day parade; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. (The Landlord Pays Those Now)", "Mayor De Blasio And NYC & Company Announce NYC Welcomed Record 62.8 Million Visitors in 2017", "Number Of Manhattan Hotel Rooms To Increase 10% In 2014", "Waldorf becomes most expensive hotel ever sold: $1.95 billion", "Four Marvel TV Shows to Film in New York", "Mayor De Blasio Announces Increased Growth of New York City's Entertainment Industry Brings $8.7 billion into the Local Economy", "New York half-year location filming surpasses record for whole of 2013", "New York surpasses Los Angeles for TV drama pilot filming", "Tampa Bay 12th Largest Media Market Now", Top 10 Consolidated Agency Networks: Ranked by 2006 Worldwide Network Revenue, "New York Daily News (American newspaper)", "el Diario/La Prensa: The Nation's Oldest Spanish-Language Daily", "After 62 Years and Many Battles, Village Voice Will End Print Publication", "Community Celebrates Public Access TV's 35th Anniversary", "Top 30 Public Radio Subscribers: Spring 2006 Arbitron", "New York City Department of Education—About Us", "A Tiny Strip of New York That Feels Like the Suburbs", "The New York City Charter School Center", "Academics—The City University of New York", "ARWU World University Rankings 2019 | Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019 | Top 1000 universities | Shanghai Ranking—2019", "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017", "Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Economic Development Corporation President Andrew M. Alper Unveil Plans to Develop Commercial Bioscience Center in Manhattan", "The Doctor Is In: New York's Increasing Number of Doctors", "The History of New York City's Municipal Hospitals", "CEO of Chicago Public Hospitals to Take the Helm of HHC", "NYC Boosts Cigarette Prices to $13, Bans Sales by Pharmacies", "NYPD Stop And Frisks: 15 Shocking Facts About A Controversial Program", "Stop-and-Frisk Campaign: About the Issue", "San Diego County homicides up 12% in 2015", "Don't Tell New York, But Crime Is Going Up", "The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City", https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/nypd/downloads/pdf/analysis_and_planning/year-end-2017-enforcement-report.pdf, Livingstone to follow methods of the NYPD, "Mystery Of New York's Falling Crime Rate Remains Unsolved", "In New York City, Fewer Murders on Rainy Days", "NY Crime—Mafia Is Down—but Not Out—Crime Families Adapt to Survive, Lowering Profile and Using Need-to-Know Tactics", "Introduction to Chapter 14: New York City (NYC) Culture", "Speeches: Tom Christopher Exhibit Opening", "ART; A 1920's Flowering That Didn't Disappear", "Will Gentrification Spoil the Birthplace of Hip-Hop?—New York", "New York retakes Top Global Fashion Capital Title from London, edging past Paris", "2 plays + 9 nominations=good odds for locals", "The Metropolitan Museum of Art General Information", "New Drive Promoting 5th Ave.'s 'Museum Mile, "Leonardo da Vinci Painting Sells for $450.3 Million, Shattering Auction Highs", "Christ painting by Leonardo da Vinci sells for record $450M", "Pastrami On Rye: A Full-length History Of The Jewish Deli", "27,479 restaurants selected by the Michelin Guide—Top Destinations", "Restaurant Inspection Results (Letter Grades)", "Millions Of Revelers Marvel Over Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade", "Guide to the 2016 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade", "Oy Gevalt! [428] The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and former CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois. Brooklyn (Kings County), on the western tip of Long Island, is the city's most populous borough. [447] Another theory cited to explain New York City's falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation between the number of murders and the increasingly wet climate in the city. Since then, it's … Yo, Philly! [327][328] These three largest groups are followed by Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Zoroastrianism, and a variety of other religions, as well as atheism. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York's non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles (1.1 million), Chicago (865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined. The Black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced "goil" and oil is pronounced "erl"; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like "Joizey" (Jersey), "Toidy-Toid Street" (33rd St.) and "terlet" (toilet). Since 2010, a Little Australia has emerged and is growing rapidly representing the Australasian presence in Nolita, Manhattan. The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect,[499] and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as it has been in the past.[499]. [107] It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history. It was the center of the Harlem Renaissance. Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's place as the world's dominant economic power. [263] The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city as of 2011[update] were the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, Guyana, Jamaica, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Russia, and Trinidad and Tobago,[265] while the Bangladeshi-born immigrant population has become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2011. Religious Data, Demographics and Statistics", "Jewish Community Study of New York: 2011 Comprehensive Report", "Nearly one in four Brooklyn residents are Jews, new study finds", "Brooklyn, the Most Jewish Spot on Earth", "N.Y. Jewish Population Grows to 1.5M: Study", "Glimpses Into American Jewish History (Part 5)", "A 'staggering' 61% of Jewish kids in New York City area are Orthodox, new study finds", "New York City Adds 2 Muslim Holy Days to Public School Calendar", "How America's oldest mosque was built by Muslims from the Baltic", "America's Oldest Surviving Mosque Is in Williamsburg", "New York City's Income-Inequality Gap Hasn't Changed, Report Says", "Some cities are still more unequal than others—an update", "Want to meet a millionaire? The Manhattan Bridge, opened in 1909, is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridges, and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism.[597][598]. Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–14, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. [48], The first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniformed firefighters and more than 3,300 uniformed EMTs and paramedics. [606] As of 2019, there are 126 miles (203 km) of segregated or "protected" bike lanes citywide. [469], One of the most common traits attributed to New York City is its fast pace,[470] which spawned the term New York minute. Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church. [457] In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe said, "Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather."[458]. [556] The rail network, connecting New York City to its suburbs, consists of the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, and New Jersey Transit. [600][601] The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940. Smorgasburg opened in 2011 as an open-air food market and is part of the Brooklyn Flea. [402] Two of the three national daily newspapers with the largest circulations in the United States are published in New York: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. One of the most venerated classical dancers of his generation, Helgi Tomasson danced with Harkness Ballet, The Joffrey Ballet, and New York City Ballet, where he distinguished himself as a dancer of technical purity, musicality, and intelligence, before assuming artistic leadership of San Francisco Ballet in 1985. [496] Other notable parades including the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade in March, the LGBT Pride March in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. [291], The wider New York City metropolitan statistical area, with more than twenty million people, about fifty percent more than second-place Los Angeles,[4] is also ethnically diverse,[292] with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. The New York area is the 14th-most religious metropolis in the United States. In March 2020, the first confirmed case of COVID-19 for the city was in Manhattan. [47], In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape. The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty, organized in the city, skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. In 2015, fewer than 23,000 New York City residents were employed in the manufacture of garments, accessories, and finished textiles, although efforts to revive the industry were underway. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely freshwater river in the city. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the Outer Boroughs. economy. The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. [20][266], Asian Americans in New York City, according to the 2010 census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles. The first non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City was Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues), a merchant from Santo Domingo. [380] Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at $3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m2) in 2017. Islam ranks the third largest religion in New York City, with estimates ranging between 600,000 and 1,000,000 observers, including 10% of the city's public school children. The Staten Island Ferry shuttles commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island. As of 2019[update], New York City had 6,455 high-rise buildings, the third most in the world after Hong Kong and Seoul. In 1639–1640, in an effort to bolster economic growth, the Dutch West India Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves (particularly with the Dutch West Indies). [87] In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King's College in Lower Manhattan.[88]. The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (Dfa). [288] Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York City,[289] with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. The New York Police Department (NYPD) has been the largest police force in the United States by a significant margin, with more than 35,000 sworn officers. [72], In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls, without bloodshed. [109] Eleven Black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and New Jersey. 4 (tie) Central Park, New York City—Annual Visitors: 40,000,000", "A$100 Million Thank-You for a Lifetime's Central Park Memories", National Tennis Center Strategic Vision Project, "Ladies and gentlemen, the Bronx is blooming! Consider asking it at the Wikipedia reference desk. Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. 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